Dictionary of Shipping Terms

 

(A-B) (C-D) (E-F) (G-H) (I-J) (K-L) (M-N) (O-P) (Q-R) (S-T) (U-V) (W-X) (Y-Z)

(C-D)
 
CENSA
Council of European and Japanese National Shipowner's Associations.
 
Cabotage
  1. Transport of goods between two ports or places located in the same country.
  2. Transport of cargo in a country other than the country where the vehicle is registered road-cargo).
  3. The carriage of a container from a surplus area to an area specified by the Owner of that container, in exchange of which and during which the operator can use this container.
Call
The visit of a vessel to a port.
 
Call Sign
A code published by the International Telecommunication Union in its annual List of Ships' Stations to be used for the information interchange between vessels, port authorities and other relevant participants in international trade.

Note: The code structure is based on a three digit designation series assigned by the ITU and a one digit assigned by the country of registration.

 
Camber
Slightly arched form of container-floors to strengthen the construction.
 
Capacity
  1. The ability, in a given time, of a resource measured in quality and quantity.
  2. The quantity of goods which can be stored in or loaded into a warehouse, store and/or loaded into a means of transport at a particular time.
Capacity Control
Process of registering and steering of capacity.
 
Capstan
Mechanical device with drum having a vertical spindle used to tighten or slacken mooring ropes or to haul an anchor.
 
Cargo
  1. Goods transported or to be transported, all goods carried on a ship covered by a B/L.
  2. Any goods, wares, merchandise, and articles of every kind whatsoever carried on a ship, other than mail, ship's stores, ship's spare parts, ship's equipment, stowage material, crew's effects and passengers' accompanied baggage (IMO).
  3. Any property carried on an aircraft, other than mail, stores and accompanied or mishandled baggage Also referred to as 'goods' (ICAO).
 
Cargo Assembly
The separate reception of parcels or packages and the holding of them for later despatch as one consignment (air cargo).
 
Cargo Disassembly
The separation of one or more of the component parts of a consignment (from other parts of such consignment) for any purpose other than that of presenting such part or parts to customs authorities at the specific request of such authorities (air cargo).
 
Cargo Handling
All procedures necessary to enable the physical handling of goods.
 
Cargo Restriction Code
A code indicating that the use of a certain container is restricted to particular cargo.
 
Cargo Tracer
A document sent by the agent to all relevant parties, stating that certain cargo is either missing or over-landed.
 
Cargo Unit
A vehicle, container, pallet, flat, portable tank or any other entity or any part thereof which belongs to the ship but is not permanently attached to that ship.
 
Carriage
The process of transporting (conveying) cargo, from one point to another.
 
Carriage Paid To (...named place of destination)
Abbreviation: CPT
 
Carriage and Insurance Paid To (...named place of destination)
Abbreviation: CIP
 
Carrier
The party undertaking transport of goods from one point to another.
 
Carrier Haulage
The inland transport service, which is performed by the sea-carrier under the terms and conditions of the tariff and of the relevant transport document.
 
Carriers Bill of Lading Ports
Terminal, Pre-terminal port or Post-terminal Port as per tariff, indicated on the Bill of Lading and which is not the port physically called at by Carriers' ocean vessels.

Note: Under normal circumstances in the B/L only ports should be mentioned which are actually called at.

 
Carriers' Lien
When the shipper ships goods 'collect', the carrier has a possessory claim on these goods, which means that the carrier can retain possession of the goods as security for the charges due.
 
back to top
Carrying Temperature
Required cargo temperature during transport and storage.
 
Cash Against Documents
Abbreviation: CAD
Terms of payment: if the buyer of goods pays for the goods against transfer of the documents, entitling him to obtain delivery of the goods from the carrier.
 
Cash On Delivery
Abbreviation: COD
Terms of payment: if the carrier collects a payment from the consignee and remits the amount to the shipper (air cargo).
 
Caveat Emptor
Let the buyer beware, purchaser must ascertain the condition of the goods to be purchased prior to the purchase.
 
Cavitation
The formation of partial vacuum bubbles on submerged surfaces caused by low pressure arising from a hydrodynamic flow as a result of mechanical force, usually associated with the use of propellers. The collapse of the bubbles causes surface damage and pits.
 
Cell
Location on board of a container vessel where one container can be stowed.
 
Cell Position
The location of a cell on board of a container vessel identified by a code for successively the bay, the row and the tier, indicating the position of a container on that vessel.
 
Cell-guide
Steel bars and rails used to steer containers during loading and discharging whilst sliding in the ship.
 
Cellular Vessel
A vessel, specially designed and equipped for the carriage of containers.
 
Central Warehouse
A warehouse which performs central functions for a number of warehouses.
 
Centre of Gravity
Point at which the entire weight of a body may be considered as concentrated so that if supported at this point the body would remain in equilibrium in any position.
 
Certificate
A document by which a fact is formally or officially attested and in which special requirements and conditions can be stated.
 
Certificate of Analysis
A document, often required by an importer or governmental authorities, attesting to the quality or purity of commodities. The origin of the certification may be a chemist or any other authorised body such as an inspection firm retained by the exporter or importer. In some cases the document may be drawn up by the manufacturer certifying that the merchandise shipped has been tested in his facility and found conform to the specifications.
 
Certificate of Classification
A certificate, issued by the classification society and stating the class under which a vessel is registered.
 
Certificate of Delivery
A certificate, indicating the condition of a vessel upon delivery for a charter including ballast, available bunkers and fresh water.
 
Certificate of Free Sale
A certificate, required by some countries as evidence that the goods are normally sold on the open market and approved by the regulatory authorities in the country of origin.
 
Certificate of Origin
A certificate, showing the country of original production of goods. Frequently used by customs in ascertaining duties under preferential tariff programmes or in connection with regulating imports from specific sources.
 
Certificate of Redelivery
A certificate, indicating the condition of a vessel upon redelivery from a charter including ballast, available bunkers and fresh water.
 
Certification Authority (Key Management)
The certification authority is the central party of a key management system. It provides certificates to the users so that ؟trust؟ can be established between different users based on the ؟trust؟ between the Registration Authority and users. These certificates are furthermore made available in one or more directories which can be accessed by all users.
 
Chain Conveyor
A conveyor consisting of two or more strands of chain running in parallel tracks with the loads carried directly on the chains.
 
Chain-Locker
Compartment at the forward part of the ship designed for the storage of the anchor chain.
 
Charge
An amount to be paid for carriage of goods based on the applicable rate of such carriage, or an amount to be paid for a special or incidental service in connection with the carriage of goods.
 
Charge Type
A separate, identifiable element of charges to be used in the pricing/rating of common services rendered to customers.
 
back to top
Charter Contract
See Charter Party
 
Charter Party
  1. A contract in which the shipowner agrees to place his vessel or a part of it at the disposal of a third party, the charterer, for the carriage of goods for which he receives a freight per ton cargo, or to let his vessel for a definite period or trip for which a hire is paid.
  2. synonym: Charter Contract.
 
Charterer
The legal person who has signed a charter party with the owner of a vessel or an aircraft and thus hires or leases a vessel or an aircraft or a part of the capacity thereof.
 
Chassis
  1. A wheeled carriage onto which an ocean container is mounted for inland conveyance
  2. The part of a motor vehicle that includes the engine, the frame, suspension system, wheels, steering mechanism etc., but not the body.
 
Claim
A charge made against a carrier for loss, damage or delay.
 
Classification
Arrangement according to a systematic division of a number of objects into groups, based on some likeness or some common traits.
 
Classification Society
An Organisation, whose main function is to carry out surveys of vessels, its purpose being to set and maintain standards of construction and upkeep for vessels, their engines and their safety equipment. A classification society also inspects and approves the construction of  containers.
 
Clean Bill of Lading
A Bill of Lading which does not contain any qualification about the apparent order and condition of the goods to be transported (it bears no stamped clauses on the front of the B/L). It bears no superimposed clauses expressly declaring a defective condition of the goods or packaging (resolution of the ICS 1951).
 
Clean on Board
When goods are loaded on board and the document issued in respect to these goods is clean.

Note: Through the usage of the UCP 500 rules the term has now become superfluous.

 
Clearance Terminal
Terminal where Customs facilities for the clearance of goods are available.
 
Cleared Without Examination
Abbreviation: CWE
Cleared by customs without inspection.
 
Client
A party with which a company has a commercial relationship concerning the transport of e.g. cargo or concerning certain services of the company concerned, either directly or through an agent.
 
Clip on Unit
Abbreviation: COU
Detachable aggregate for a temperature controlled container (Conair).
 
Closed Ventilated Container
A container of a closed type, similar to a general purpose container, but specially designed for carriage of cargo where ventilation, either natural or mechanical (forced), is necessary.
 
Co-loading
The loading, on the way, of cargo from another shipper, having the same final destination as the cargo loaded earlier.
 
Co-makership
The long-term relationship between e.g. a supplier or a carrier and a customer, on the basis of mutual confidence.
 
Co-shippership
See Co-makership
 
Coaming
Structure around the hatch or door opening of a ship intended to provide seating for the cover, to stiffen the deck or plates and to prevent the ingress of water.
 
Coaster
A relative small ship plying between coastal ports.
 
Code
A character string that represents a member set of values.
 
Code List
The complete set of code values for a data item.
 
Cofferdam
An empty space on board of a vessel between two bulkheads or two decks separating oil tanks from each other and/or the engine room or other compartments.
 
Collapsible Container
Container which can be easily folded, disassembled and reassembled.
 
Combination Charge
An amount which is obtained by combining two or more charges.
 
back to top
Combination Chassis
A chassis which can carry either one forty foot or thirty foot container or a combination of shorter containers e.g. 2 x 20 foot.
 
Combined Transport
Intermodal transport where the major part of the journey is by one mode such as rail, inland waterway or sea and any initial and/or final leg carried out by another mode such as road.
 
Combined Transport Bill of Lading
See Bill of Lading R302
 
Combined Transport Document
Abbreviation: CTD
Negotiable or non-negotiable document evidencing a contract for the performance and/or procurement of performance of combined transport of goods.

Thus a combined transport document is a document issued by a Carrier who contracts as a principal with the Merchant to effect a combined transport often on a door-to-door basis.

 
Combined Transport Operator
Abbreviation: CTO
A party who undertakes to carry goods with different modes of transport.
 
Commercial Invoice
A document showing commercial values of the transaction between the buyer and seller.
 
Commodity
Indication of the type of goods. Commodities are coded according to the harmonised system.
 
Commodity Box Rate
A rate classified by commodity and quoted per container.
 
Commodity Code
Code used in the Harmonised System for the classification of goods, which are most commonly produced and traded.
 
Commodity Item Number
Specific description number required in air transport to indicate that a specific freight rate applies.
 
Common Access Reference
A key to relate all subsequent transfers of data to the same business case or file.
 
Compagneurs Nationales des Conteneurs
Abbreviation: CNC affiliate of the French National Railways for Container traffic.
 
Compass
Instrument used for showing the direction of north and the relative heading of the ship compared with this direction.
 
Competent Authority Approval
Abbreviation: CAA
A competent authority means any national regulatory body or authority designated or otherwise recognised as such for any purpose in connection with IMO code.
 
Component
A uniquely identifiable product that is considered indivisible for a particular planning or control purpose, and/or which cannot be decomposed without destroying it.

Note: A component for one organisational group may be the final assembly of another group (e.g. electric motor).

 
Compradore
A local advisor or agent employed by a foreign party or company who acts as an intermediary in transactions with local inhabitants.
 
Computer Virus
A program that can infect other programs by modifying them to include a possibly evolved copy of itself.
 
Conair Container
Thermal container served by an external cooling system (e.g. a vessel's cooling system or a Clip On Unit), which regulates the temperature of the cargo.

Note: Conair is a brand name.

 
Conditions
  1. Anything called for as requirements before the performance or completion of something else.
  2. Contractual stipulations which are printed on a document or provided separately.
 
Conditions of Carriage
The general terms and conditions established by a carrier in respect of the carriage (air cargo).
 
Conditions of Contract
Terms and conditions shown on the Air Waybill (air cargo).
 
Cones
Devices for facilitating the loading, positioning and lashing of containers. The cones insert into the bottom castings of the container.
 
Conference
See Liner conference
 
Congestion
Accumulation of vessels at a port to the extent that vessels arriving to load or discharge are obliged to wait for a vacant berth.
 
back to top
Connecting Carrier
A carrier to whose services the cargo is to be transferred for onward connecting transport (air cargo).
 
Connecting Road Haulage
See Drayage
 
Consensus
General agreement, characterised by the absence of sustained opposition to substantial issues by any important part of concerned interests and by a process that involves seeking to take into account the views of all parties concerned and to reconcile any conflicting arguments. Consensus needs not to imply unanimity.
 
Consignee
The party such as mentioned in the transport document by whom the goods, cargo or containers are to be received.
 
Consignment
A separate identifiable number of goods (available to be) transported from one consignor to one consignee via one or more than one modes of transport and specified in one single transport document.
 
Consignment Instructions
Instructions from either the seller/consignor or the buyer/consignee to a freight forwarder, carrier or his agent, or other provider of a service, enabling the movement of goods and associated activities. The following functions can be covered:
  • Movement and handling of goods (shipping, forwarding and stowage).
  • Customs formalities.
  • Distribution of documents.
  • Allocation of documents (freight and charges for the connected operations).
  • Special instructions (insurance, dangerous goods, goods release, additional documents required).
 
Consignment Note
A document prepared by the shipper and comprising a transport contract. It contains details of the consignment to be carried to the port of loading and it is signed by the inland carrier as proof of receipt.
 
Consignment Stock
The stock of goods with an external party (customer) which is still the property of the supplier. Payment for these goods is made to the supplier at the moment when they are sold (used) by this party.
 
Consignor
See Shipper
 
Consolidate
To group and stuff several shipments together in one container.
 
Consolidated Container
Container stuffed with several shipments (consignments) from different shippers for delivery to one or more consignees.
 
Consolidation
The grouping together of smaller consignments of goods into a large consignment for carriage as a larger unit in order to obtain a reduced rate.
 
Consolidation Point
Location where consolidation of consignments takes place.
 
Consolidator
A firm or company which consolidates cargo.
 
Consortium
Consortium is a form of co-operation between two or more carriers to operate in a particular trade.
 
Consular Invoice
An invoice covering shipment of goods certified by a consular official of the destination country, and used normally by customs or officials concerned with foreign exchange availability to ascertain the correctness of commercial invoice values.
 
Container
An item of equipment as defined by the International Organisation for Standardisation (ISO) for transport purposes. It must be of:
  1. a permanent character and accordingly strong enough to be suitable for repeated use.
  2. specially designed to facilitate the carriage of goods, by one or more modes of transport without intermediate reloading.
  3. fitted with devices permitting its ready handling, particularly from one mode of transport to another.
  4. so designed as to be easy to fill and empty.
  5. having an internal volume of 1 m3 or more.

      The term container includes neither vehicles nor conventional packing.

 
Container Bolster
A container floor without sides or end walls which does not have the ISO corner fittings and is generally used for Ro/Ro operations.

Note: A bolster cannot be handled either full or empty by a container spreader without special gear.

 
Container Chassis
A vehicle specially built for the purpose of transporting a container so that, when container and chassis are assembled, the produced unit serves as a road trailer.
 
Container Check Digit
The 7th digit of the serial number of a container used to check whether prefix and serial number are correct.
 
Container Depot
Storage area for empty containers.
 
Container Freight Station
Abbreviation: CFS
A facility at which (export) LCL cargo is received from merchants for loading (stuffing) into containers or at which (import) LCL cargo is unloaded (stripped) from containers and delivered to merchants.
 
Container Lease
The contract by which the owner of containers (lessor) gives the use of containers to a lessee for a specified period of time and for fixed payments.
 
Container Load Plan (CLP)
A list of items loaded in a specific container and where appropriate their sequence of loading.
 
back to top
Container Logistics
The controlling and positioning of containers and other equipment.
 
Container Manifest
The document specifying the contents of particular freight containers or other transport units, prepared by the party responsible for their loading into the container or unit.
 
Container Moves
The number of actions performed by one container crane during a certain period.
 
Container Number
Identification number of a container consisting of prefix and serial number and check digit. (e.g. KNLU 123456-7)
See also: Container Serial Number and Container Prefix
 
Container Owner
A party who has a container at his disposal and who is entitled to lease or sell the container.
 
Container Platform
A container floor without sides or end walls, which can be loaded by spreader directly and is generally, used for Lo-Lo operations.
 
Container Pool
A certain stock of containers which is jointly used by several container carriers and/or leasing companies.
 
Container Prefix
A four letter code that forms the first part of a container identification number indicating the owner of a container.
 
Container Safety Convention
Abbreviation: CSC
International convention for safe containers.
 
Container Serial Number
A seven digit serial number (6 plus 1 Check Digit) that forms the second part of a container identification number.
 
Container Service Charges
Charges to be paid by cargo interests as per tariff.
 
Container Size Code
An indication of 2 digits of the nominal length and nominal height.
See also: Size/Type ISO6346
 
Container Size/Type
Description of the size and type of a freight container or similar unit load device as specified in ISO6346.
 
Container Stack
Two or more containers, one placed above the other, forming a vertical column.
See also: Stack
 
Container Sublease
Contract by which a carrier gives the use of containers to another carrier for a specified period of time and for fixed payments.
 
Container Terminal
Place where loaded and/or empty containers are loaded or discharged into or from a means of transport.
 
Container Type Code
Two digits, the first of which indicates the category and the second of which indicates certain physical characteristics or other attributes.
See also: Container Size/Type ISO6346
 
Container Yard
Abbreviation: CY
A facility at which FCL traffic and empty containers are received from or delivered to the Merchant by or on behalf of the Carrier.

Note: Often this yard is used to receive goods on behalf of the merchant and pack these in containers for FCL traffic.

 
Containerised
Indication that goods have been stowed in a container.
 
Contraband
Goods forbidden by national law to be imported or exported.
 
Contract
An agreement enforceable by law between two or more parties stipulating their rights and obligations which are required by one or both parties to acts or forbearance by the other or both.
 
Contract Logistics
The contracting out of all the warehousing, transport and distribution activities or a part thereof by manufacturing companies.
 
Contract of Affreightment
An agreement whereby the shipowner agrees to carry goods by water, or furnishes a vessel for the purpose of carrying goods by water, in return for a sum of money called freight. There are two forms: the charter party and the contract contained in the Bill of Lading.
 
Contractual Port of Loading
A port at which an ocean vessel does not call, but which is equalised with the actual port of call and upon which inland haulage services and inland tariffs are based.

Note: Generally speaking it is seen as the port to be mentioned on the B/L from which cargo is accepted (e.g. delivered by the consignee for sea transport).

 
back to top
Control
The registration and check on data and activities as well as determining supervising procedures and changes related to procedures.
 
Convention Internationale Concernant le Transport des Marchandises par Chemin de Fer
Abbreviation: CIM
International agreement, applied by 19 European railway companies, setting out conditions for international railway transport of goods and the liabilities of the carrier.
 
Convention Relative au Contrat de Transport International de Marchandise par Route
Abbreviation: CMR
Convention for the international carriage of goods by road, setting out the conditions of carriage and the liabilities of the carrier.

Note: Adherence to this set of regulations reflects a desire to standardise items such as documentation and rules on the carriers liability.

 
Conventional Cargo
See Break Bulk Cargo
 
Convertor Dolly
An auxiliary undercarriage assembly consisting of a chassis, fifth wheel and towbar used to convert a semi-trailer or a container chassis to a full trailer.
 
Conveyance
Transport of goods from one place to another.
 
Conveyor
A mechanical device in the form of a continuous belt for transporting cargo.
 
Core Competence
The combination of individual skills and use of technologies that underlay the various products and or services of a business.
 
Core Data
The fundamental set of data that is needed to convey the essential minimum detail for a specific transaction type. Ideally the detail should be all required pieces of information with no, or at least the very minimum of, options.
 
Core Master Data
The fundamental set of data that is needed to establish sufficient (but minimum) reference material to support the maximum use of pre-code, pre-agreed information enabling simple (minimum required content) transaction messaging.
 
Core Systems
Systems which are corporately owned and used globally. The systems are managed and controlled by a global team of specialists. The systems are considered as key for the general functioning of the entire company.
 
Corner Fittings
Fittings located at the corners of containers providing means of supporting, stacking, handling and securing the container.
 
Corner Post
Vertical structural member at either side of an 'end frame' of a container joining a top and a bottom corner fitting (and thereby forming a 'corner structure').
 
Correction Message
A substitution for what has been wrong in a prior data interchange between computers in accordance with interchange agreements.
 
Cost and Freight (...named port of destination)
Abbreviation: CFR
See Inco Terms
 
Cost, Insurance and Freight (...named port of destination)
Abbreviation: CIF
See Inco Terms
 
Council of European and Japanese National Shipowner's Associations
Abbreviation: CENSA
The main objectives of this Organisation are to promote and protect sound Shipping policies in all sectors of shipping, to co-ordinate and present the views of its members and to exchange views with other shipowner groups.
 
Country of Departure
Country from which a certain means of transport is scheduled to depart or has departed.
 
Country of Despatch
Country from which the goods are shipped.
 
Country of Origin
Country in which the goods have been produced or manufactured, according to criteria laid down for the purpose of application of the customs tariff, of quantitative restrictions, or of any other measure related to trade.
 
Country of Provenance
The country from which goods or cargo are sent to the importing country.
 
Crane
A machine designed for moving and lifting weight by means of a movable projecting arm or a horizontal beam, which is able to travel over a certain distance.
 
Crew Member
Any person actually employed for duties on board during a voyage in the working or service of a ship and included in the crew list (IMO).
 
Critical Path Method
A network planning technique used for planning and controlling the activities in a project. By showing each of these activities and their associated times, the 'critical path' can be determined. The critical path is the series of successive activities which takes up most time and is therefore decisive for the total lead time of the project.
 
back to top
Cross Trades
Term used in  for the services of a vessel between nations other than the nation in which the vessel is registered (UNCTAD).
 
Cruise Ship
A ship on an international voyage carrying passengers participating in a group program and accommodated on board, for the purpose of making scheduled temporary tourist visits at one or more different ports, and which during the voyage does not normally: (a) embark or disembark any other passengers; (b) load or discharge any cargo.
 
Currency
A medium of exchange of value, defined by reference to the geographical location of the authorities responsible for it (ISO4217).

In general, the monetary unit involved in a transaction and represented by a name or a symbol.

 
Currency Adjustment Factor
Abbreviation: CAF
Adjustment applied by  lines or liner conferences on freight rates to offset losses or gains for carriers resulting from fluctuations in exchange rates of tariff currencies.
 
Customer
See Client
 
Customer Pick Up
Cargo picked up by a customer at a warehouse.
 
Customer Service
  1. The way in which during a commercial relationship the wishes and demands of the (prospective) client are catered for.
  2. Supporting activities at the customer interface adding value to a product (CEN273).
 
Customer Service Level
A performance measure of customer service.

Note: generally this is seen as the degree with which customer orders can be executed, in accordance with the terms which are generally accepted in the market.

 
Customs
The department of the Civil Service that deals with the levying of duties and taxes on imported goods from foreign countries and the control over the export and import of goods e.g. allowed quota prohibited goods.
 
Customs Broker
An authorised agent specialised in customs clearance procedures on account of importers/exporters.
 
Customs Clearance Agent
Customs broker or other agent of the consignee designated to perform customs clearance services for the consignee.
 
Customs Invoice
Document required by the customs in an importing country in which an exporter states the invoice or other price (e.g. selling price, price of identical goods), and specifies costs for freight, insurance and packing etc., terms of delivery and payment, for the purpose of determining the customs value in the importing country of goods consigned to that country.
 
Customs Value
The worth of an item or group of items expressed in a monetary amount, within a consignment declared to Customs for duty and statistical reasons.
 
Cybernetics
The study of control processes in mechanical, biological, electrical and information systems.
 
Cycle Stock
That portion of stock available or planned to be available in a given period for normal demand, excluding excess stock and safety stock.
 
D
 
Damage Report
Form on which physical damage is recorded (e.g. containers).
 
Damaged Cargo Report
Written statement concerning established damages to cargo and/or equipment.
 
Dangerous Goods
Goods are to be considered dangerous if the transport of such goods might cause harm, risk, peril, or other evil to people, environment, equipment or any property whatsoever.
 
Dangerous Goods Declaration
Document issued by a consignor in accordance with applicable conventions or regulations, describing hazardous goods or materials for transport purposes, and stating that the latter have been packed and labelled in accordance with the provisions of the relevant conventions or regulations.
 
Dangerous Goods Packing Certificate
A document as part of the dangerous goods declaration in which the responsible party declares that the cargo has been stowed in accordance with the rules in a clean container in compliance with the IMDG regulations and properly secured.
 
Data
A re-interpretable representation of information in a formalised manner suitable for communication, interpretation or processing.
 
Data Carrier
Medium designed to carry records of data entries.
 
Data Plate
A metal identification plate affixed to a container, which displays among others the gross and tare weights and external dimensions.
 
Deadfreight
Slots paid for but not used.
 
Deadload
The difference between the actual and calculated ship's draft.
 
Deadweight
Abbreviation: DWT
The total weight of cargo, cargo equipment, bunkers, provisions, water, stores and spare parts which a vessel can lift when loaded to her maximum draught as applicable under the circumstances. The dead-weight is expressed in tons.
 
Decision Support System
Abbreviation: DSS
An interactive computer-based system which generates a number of alternatives to solve an unstructured problem. These alternatives are being interpreted by the manager (decision- maker), whereafter he decides which alternative is to be used to solve the problem.
 
Deck
Any extended horizontal structure in a vessel or an aircraft, serving as a floor and structural support, covering, partially or fully, a portion of the vessel or aircraft.
 
Declaration of Origin
Appropriate statement as to the origin of the goods, made in connection with their exportation by the manufacturer, producer, supplier, exporter or other competent person on the commercial invoice or any document relating to goods.
 
Declared Value for Carriage
The value of the goods declared to the carrier by the shipper for the purpose of determining charges or of establishing the limit of the carrier's liability for loss, damage or delay. It is also the basis for possible applicable valuation charges (air cargo).
 
Decoupling Inventory
A stock retained to make the independent control of two successive operations possible.
 
Decoupling Point
The point in the supply chain which provides a buffer between differing input and output rates.
 
Dedicated Service
  1. A service specially designed for the use by one or more particular customers.
  2. A service (e.g. feeder) totally under control of the  Line
 
Deep Tank
Tank fitted and equipped for the carriage of vegetable oil (e.g. palm oil and coconut oil) and other liquids in bulk. By means of oil-tight bulkheads and/or decks it is possible to carry different kinds of liquid in adjacent tanks. Deep tanks may be equipped with heating facilities in order to carry and discharge oil at the required temperature.
 
Default Charge
A (standard) charge applicable for a trade, stretch or location.

In the absence of specifics (not otherwise specified/enumerated) a general amount has been set.

 
Degroupage
Splitting up shipments into small consignments.
 
Delay in Transit (DIT)
Delay of shipment at the customer؟s request.
 
Delivered At Frontier (...named place)
Abbreviation: DAF
See Inco Terms
 
Delivered Duty Paid (...named place of destination)
Abbreviation: DDP
See Inco Terms
 
Delivered Duty Unpaid (...named place of destination)
Abbreviation: DDU
See Inco Terms
 
back to top
Delivered Ex Quay (...named port of destination)
Abbreviation: DEQ
See Inco Terms
 
Delivered Ex Ship (...named port of destination)
Abbreviation: DES
See Inco Terms
 
Delivering Carrier
The carrier who delivers the consignment to the consignee or his agent (air cargo).
 
Delivery
The process of delivering the consignment to the consignee at the agreed place.
 
Delivery Instruction
Document issued by a buyer giving instructions regarding the details of the delivery of goods ordered.
 
Delivery Note
A document recording the delivery of products to a consignee (customer).
 
Delivery Order
  1. A carrier؟s delivery order (negotiable document) is used for splitting a B/L (after surrender) in different parcels and have the same function as a B/L.
  2. The authorisation of the entitled party for the shipment to a party other than the consignee showed on the Air Waybill (air cargo).
 
Delivery Party
The party to which goods are to be delivered.
 
Delivery Reliability
The proportion of total delivery occasions in which the time, place, quality and quantity of products delivered accords with the order.
 
Delivery Schedule
The required and/or agreed time of delivery of goods or services purchased for a future period.
 
Delivery Service
The carriage of inbound consignments from the airport of destination to the address of the consignee or his designated agent or to the custody of the appropriate custom department agency when required (air cargo).
 
Delivery Time
The time between order and delivery.
 
Demand
The quantity of goods required by the market to be delivered in a particular period or at a specific date.
 
Demise Charter
A contract whereby the shipowner leases his vessel to the charterer for a period of time during which the whole use and management of the vessel passes to the charterer, which involves that the charterer is to pay all expenses for the operation and maintenance of the vessel. Officers and crew will become servants of the charterer.

A demise charter whereby the charterer has the right to place his own master and crew on board of the vessel is also called 'bareboat charter'.

 
Demurrage
  1. A variable fee charged to carriers and/or customers for the use of Unit Load Devices (ULD's) owned by a carrier beyond the free time of shipment.
  2. Additional charge imposed for exceeding the free time, which is included in the rate and allowed for the use of certain equipment at the terminal.
 
Density of Commodity
The mass of a commodity to its volume.
 
Dependent Demand
A demand directly related to or derived from the demand for other items or end products. Dependent demands are therefore calculated, and need not and should not be forecast.
 
Depot
The place designated by the carrier where empty containers are kept in stock and received from or delivered to the container operators or merchants.
 
Depot Location
The geographical place where one or more  depots are situated.
 
Derrick
Lifting equipment on board a conventional vessel for loading and discharging cargo, consisting of a post attached to the deck and an inclined spar.
 
Despatch
The process of sending goods.
 
Despatch Advice
Information send by shippers to the recipient of goods informing that specified goods are sent or ready to be sent advising the detailed contents of the consignment.
 
Despatch Days
The days gained if the free time included in the rate and allowed for the use of certain equipment is not fully used.
 
Despatch Note (for post parcels)
Document which, according to the agreement concerning postal parcels, is to accompany post parcels.
 
back to top
Destination
  1. Place for which goods or a vehicle is bound.
  2. The ultimate stopping place according to the contract of carriage (air cargo).
 
Det Norske Veritas
Norwegian classification society.
 
Detention
Keeping equipment beyond the time allowed.
See Demurrage
 
Detention Charge
Charges levied on usage of equipment exceeding free time period as stipulated in the pertinent inland rules and conditions.
 
Deterioration
The downgrading of a product due to long storage, damage to packing or other external influences.
 
Devanning
See Stripping, Unpacking
 
Deviation from a Route
A divergence from the agreed or customary route.
 
Dimensions
Measurements in length, width and height, regarding cargo.
 
Direct Delivery
  1. The conveyance of goods directly from the vendor to the buyer. Frequently used if a third party acts as intermediary agent between vendor and buyer.
  2. Direct discharge from vessel onto railroad car, road vehicle or barge with the purpose of immediate transport from the port area (usually occurs when ports lack adequate storage space or when ports are not equipped to handle a specific cargo).
 
Direct Interchange
Transfer of leased equipment from one lessee to another (container).
 
Direct Product Profitability
Abbreviation: DPP
System employed mainly within the retail sector for calculating the profit from any given product in any given position within the supply chain, requiring transparency and management of all logistic costs.
 
Direct Route
The shortest operated route between two points.
 
Disbursement
Sums paid out by a ship's agent at a port and recovered from the carrier.
 
Discharge
  1. The unloading of a vehicle, a vessel or an aircraft.
  2. The landing of cargo.
 
Discrepancy
Difference between the particulars given and the particulars found.
 
Discrete Code
A bar code in which the spaces between characters (inter character gaps) are not part of the code as each character begins and ends with a bar. The spaces can therefore vary in width, specified tolerances.

An example is Code 39.

 
Dispatch
See Despatch
 
Displacement
The weight of the quantity of water displaced by the vessel. The displacement of the vessel on her light draft represents the weight of the vessel ready for use including stores etc.
 
Disposable Pallet
Pallet intended to be discarded after a single cycle of use.
 
Disposal Chain
A sequence of events in a goods-flow which gets rid of a specific good. This may include removal, recycling, waste dumping etc.
 
Disposal of Goods
The act of getting rid of goods.
 
Dispositioning
All activities relating to the inland movement of empty and or full containers.
 
Distribution
The set of activities which ensure the availability of goods in the desired quality, quantity, place and time for the customer.
See also: Physical Distribution
 
Distribution Centre
A warehouse for the receipt, the storage and the dispersal of goods among customers.
 
back to top
Distribution Channel
The route by which a company distributes goods.
 
Distribution Requirements Planning
Abbreviation: DRP-I
The function of determining the need to replenish stock at branch warehouses.
 
Distribution Resource Planning
Abbreviation: DRP-II
The set of concepts, procedures and techniques, being an extension of DRP-I, for the effective planning and control of the physical distribution.
 
Divider
A vertically mounted partition in a compartment on board of an aircraft.
 
Dock Bumpers
Cushioning devices (rubber, plastic, wood, etc.) mounted at the extreme rear of a chassis or trailer to take the impact when it backs into a loading dock or platform (road cargo).
 
Dock Receipt
Document issued acknowledging that goods are received for shipment.
 
Document
Anything printed, written, relied upon to record or prove something.
 
Document Holder
Usually fastened to the door on the front of a container. May contain e.g. a certificate of approval of the container.
 
Domestic Carriage
Carriage whereby the place of departure and the place of destination are situated within one country (air cargo).
 
Domestic Rate
Rate applicable within a country, and in most cases subject to special conditions other than those of IATA (air cargo).
 
Door Lock Bars
See Bars
 
Door to Door Transport
See House to House Transport
 
Double Banking
Two vessels moored alongside each other on a certain berth.
 
Double Stack Train
A number of railway wagons, usually a block train, on which containers can be stacked two- high.
 
Double bottom
Construction of the bottom of a ship whereby a generally watertight space is formed between the shell and an inner bottom placed at a sufficient height above the baseline to allow access and to reduce risks due to grounding or colliding.
 
Double-deck Pallet
Flat pallet with a top and bottom deck.
 
Down Time
The period of time when a machine is not available for production due to a functional failure or maintenance.
 
Draft
The draft of a vessel is the vertical distance between the waterline and the underside of the keel of the vessel. During the construction of a vessel the marks showing the draft are welded on each side of the vessel near the stem, the stern and amidships.
 
Draught
See Draft
 
Drawback
Repayment of any part of customs or excise duties previously collected on imported goods, when those goods are exported again.
 
Drayage
  1. The hauling of a load by a cart with detachable sides (dray).
  2. Road transportation between the nearest railway terminal and the stuffing place.
 
Drilling Rig
A structure, which drills wells in the bottom in order to search for oil.
 
Drop off Charge
Charge made by container owner and/or terminal operators for delivery of a leased, or pool container into depot stock. The drop-off charge may be a combination of actual handling and storage charges with surcharges.
 
Dry Bulk Container
Container consisting of a cargo-carrying structure, firmly secured within a framework, for the carriage of dry solids in bulk without packaging.

Containers of this type have type codes 80 and 81.

 
back to top
Dry Cargo Container
 Container which is designed for the carriage of goods other than liquids.
 
Dunnage
Stowage material, mainly timber or board, used to prevent damage to cargo during carriage.
 
Duty Free Zone
An area where goods or cargo can be stored without paying import customs duties awaiting further transport or manufacturing.
 

 

back to top

 

 

(A-B) (C-D) (E-F) (G-H) (I-J) (K-L) (M-N) (O-P) (Q-R) (S-T) (U-V) (W-X) (Y-Z)